Charcoal making machine, is a device that puts biomass waste or sewage sludge in a closed container, heats and carbonize the materials at a certain temperature and pressure to produce charcoal, wood vinegar, tar and combustible. Each part of the charcoal machine plays a vital role in the whole carbonization process. Here, we will introduce the main components of the newly-designed charcoal making machine for sale from Beston Group in detail for your reference.
The components of the latest charcoal making machine designed by Beston Group includes the following parts: drying pretreatment system, carbonization host system, slag discharging system, combustible gas condensing system, dust removal system, feeding system and other parts. All the systems support each other and interact with each other to complete the biomass pyrolysis process with high efficiency. Customers can also increase or decrease configuration according to their budget and specific plan.
PART1. Drying Pretreatment System
The drying drum rotates under the work of the driving device, and the heat supplied to the drum is burned by the main and auxiliary furnaces of the main engine. The raw material absorbs heat in the drum, and the moisture in the material starts to evaporate, thereby reducing the moisture content of the material. The drum rotates to remove the material. The gravitational force of the external fan can extract most of the undesirable impurities, dust, etc., to provide good raw materials for the carbonization furnace, and greatly improve the processing capacity of the carbonization host and the quality of charcoal.
The inlet and outlet seal heads provide sealing, feeding, discharging and dust transportation for the drum under the operation of the drying drum.
The agitating and advancing structure design of the breaker shaft has high drying efficiency and large drying capacity. The breaker shaft breaks and raises the material, and the material curtain wall like a “sandstorm” exchanges heat energy with the hot air, and the hot air is induced by the fan. The negative pressure must pass through the curtain wall to be discharged from the machine. Fully dry the wet materials before discharging the materials from the machine. The pressure of the purification equipment in the later process is very small, because the dust of the waste heat exhaust gas, carbon monoxide and the wet material adhere to the material during heat exchange, and the material has a certain degree of purification and filtration. Changing the speed of the dispersing shaft can control the speed of the motor by means of frequency conversion control to adjust the speed of the dispersing shaft, adjust the dust concentration raised during the drying process, to improve the quality of charcoal.
The driving device is composed of driving motor, reducer, and base to provide power for the rotation of the dryer. The forward and reverse rotation can be controlled through the electric control cabinet. The cylindrical gear reducer is driven by a motor to achieve the purpose of running the drying drum. The motor can be controlled by frequency conversion to control the drum speed, so that the residence time of the material in the drum can be adjusted, which can be flexibly adjusted according to the material humidity and processing capacity .
PART2. Carbonization Host System
The function of the drive device in the carbonization system is the same as the function of the driving device in the drying system.
The fuel is burned in the base to provide heat for the main furnace. Different heating schemes can be customized according to the customer’s on-site conditions. Commonly fuels in the charcoal making process include coal, wood, fuel oil, natural gas, and non-condensable combustible gas recovered during the production. The structure of the base will be different from the different fuels used. The base is integrated and easy to install. Be sure to fill in the heating fuel when placing the order.
Main Carbonization Furnace
The main furnace rotates under the operation of the driving device, and the raw materials absorb heat in the main furnace. After reaching the pyrolysis temperature, the pyrolysis of biomass starts to produce solid charcoal and combustible gas.
The main furnace is the core component of the entire biomass pyrolysis equipment. The quality of its production and whether the design is reasonable directly affect the normal operation of the entire pyrolysis equipment, as well as the safety of personnel and equipment in production.
The main furnace adopts a double-cylinder structure, that is, the “one-fire two-step method” for pyrolysis, and the outer layer is deeply heated, so that the biomass can produce high-temperature dry distillation reaction in a relatively closed environment inside, and the inner cylinder further evaporates the material in a relatively high-temperature environment. Therefore, it can ensure that the charcoal content of the produced biomass meets the ideal requirements. The material does not contact the flue gas and is not polluted by hot air. Compared with the single-layer external heating structure, the heat utilization rate is more than doubled, and the thermal efficiency of the equipment reaches 70%-90%. The heating zone uses 310S stainless steel to prevent the equipment from overheating and deformation. It adopts a double-return heating structure. Any traditional equipment does not have this structure. There are technical blind spots in the improvement, and the user has a very high praise rate.
The main function of the casing (the inside needs to be filled with castable or ceramic modules) is to keep warm, reduce the heat loss of the pyrolysis reactor in the heating process, and reduce the fuel consumption. The casing is generally composed of a pair of upper casing and 2 lower casings. The casing is one-piece, and the upper and lower casings are connected by bolts, which is convenient for installation.
The seal heads are to provide sealing, feeding, discharging and flammable gas transmission to the main furnace under the operation of the main furnace. It is a very important part of the carbonization host. Its main components and principles are introduced as follows:
1. Sealing cloth; 2. Aluminum foil paper; 3. Tie wire (wire rope); 4. Outer plate of fish scale; 5. Inner plate of fish scale; 6. Sealant; 7. Graphite block; 8. Seal cloth pad.
The carbonization seal heads adopt a multi-layer and multi-site sealing structure, which has a good sealing effect and high safety in use. The sealing cloth adopts graphite block + sealing cloth + fish scale structure to seal the outside, and the sealing level is high and reliable, which can effectively prevent the internal gas from flowing out and the external gas from entering.
The main function of the gearless seat is to support the main furnace at the front end of the main furnace, and the rollers cooperate with the large ribs on the main furnace to limit the axial position of the main furnace.
The main function of the gear seat is to support the main furnace in the middle of the main furnace, and drive the drum to rotate through the meshing of the pinion with the large ring gear on the main furnace.
Rear Base Parts
The main function of the rear base parts is to support the main furnace by cooperating with the roller ring on the main furnace at the end of the main furnace. The width of the roller is 240, mainly because the main furnace can maintain good contact with the tug after being heated axially.
PART3. Slag Discharging System
Water-cooled Spiral Slagging 1#
Its function is to discharge the charcoal produced by the main furnace. When equipped with a water cooling system, it can achieve low-temperature charcoal production. This water cooling system, including circulating water pumps and circulating water pipes, can share a water cooling system with the combustible gas condenser by adding corresponding valves and pipes.
Water-cooled Spiral Slagging 2#
Undertake the work of the last water-cooled spiral slagging 1#. When equipped with a water cooling system, charcoal can be produced at low temperature. This water cooling system, including circulating water pumps and circulating water pipes, can share a water cooling system with the combustible gas condenser by adding corresponding valves and pipes.
Undertake the last water-cooled spiral slag discharge 2#. The main function of the wind shelter device is to play a sealing role during continuous quantitative discharge. The sealing principle is to store a certain amount of material between the internal rotating blades to form a material seal, plus its own. The sealing prevents external oxygen gas from entering the main carbonization furnace through the closed air device and water-cooled spiral slagging 1# and 2#, avoiding the aerobic reaction and explosion of the materials inside the main furnace, and ensuring the safety of the main furnace. The quantitative discharge of the closed air device can discharge the material into the slag box or bag.
PART4. Combustible Gas Condensing System
Its function is to perform preliminary cooling of the combustible gas from the main furnace so that the combustible gas carries sundries, the dirt after cooling and condensation, and the liquid oil fall into the bottom of the condenser to be discharged, which can reduce the intake pipe in the rear tube condenser clogged.
The function of the tube condenser is to convert gas or vapor into liquid, and transfer the heat in the tube to the cooling water outside the tube in a very fast manner. The working process of the condenser is a process of exothermic heat. The design of the condenser is directly related to the rate of charcaol.
The condenser of the biochar making machine has the characteristics of simple structure, convenient maintenance, large cooling area, etc., and is widely used in the petrochemical industry. It uses water as the cooling medium to transfer heat.
During the flow of combustible gas, the cooling water flows into the condenser from the water inlet at the bottom under the action of the cooling water circulating pump. During this process, the heat of the combustible gas is transferred to the cooling water, and the hot water is discharged from the water outlet and enters the water inlet of the cooling tower. Under the action of the heat dissipation tower, the heat in the cooling circulating water is discharged, so that the temperature of the cooling circulating water is within a certain range to ensure the normal operation of the condensing system, and the circulating cooling water is always clean.
The hydro-seal is to adjust the internal pressure of the combustible gas pipeline and the main furnace through the pressure of the water. A branch pipe is drawn from the combustible gas pipeline and inserted about 6-10 cm below the water surface. When the internal pressure is too high, it will overcome the pressure of the water to leak out, and at the same time, the branch pipe cannot be inserted below the water surface. Too-low water pressure increasing will increase the pressure relief pressure and reduce the safety of protection.
PART5. Dust Removal System
Desulfurization Dust Remover
The desulfurization dust remover provides two dust removal methods, one is water-resistant honeycomb activated carbon adsorption and the other is water spray dust removal.
- The overall dimensions of water-resistant honeycomb activated carbon are generally100*100*100mm cube, which has strong adsorption performance and can adsorb gas, liquid or colloidal solid on its surface; for gas, liquid, the quality of the adsorbed substance can be close to the quality of activated carbon itself. Activated carbon is a kind of multi-pore carbon compound with extremely rich pore structure. Activated carbon is mainly used to remove pollutants in water, decolor, filter and purify liquids and gases. It is also used for air purification and waste gas recovery (such as in the chemical industry). Recycling of gas benzene, the recovery and refining of precious metals (such as the absorption of gold), etc.
- Spray water dust removal: The spray water pump supporting the dust removal tower pumps water from the base of the dust removal tower, and the water in the dust removal device is sprayed into a mist through the nozzle. The collision, interception and cohesion between the dust particles fall down with the droplets. This kind of dust collector has simple structure, low resistance and convenient operation. The spray head in the tower sprays water evenly separatesthe fine particles in the hot air. The dust and impurities precipitate in the dust removal base, the clean water is separated by the dust removal pool, and the separated water is recycled for the water mist dust removal.
Spray Dust Remover
The spray dust remover provides two dust removal methods, one is Bohr magnetic ring packing for dust removal, and the other is water spray dust removal.
- Magnetic ring packing dust removal: The packing adopts ceramic Bohrmagnetic ring, which has the advantages of large flux, low resistance, high separation efficiency, and large operating flexibility. In general, it is 50%-100%larger than ordinary rings. When the hot air passes, the filler magnetic ring has a damping effect on the hot air and separates the larger particles of dust. The spray water wets the surface of the magnetic ring. When the hot air passes, the wet magnetic ring surface absorbs the smaller particles of dust and sprays at the same time. The shower pump sprays water evenly to wash the magnetic ring.
- Spray water dust removal: The spray water pump supporting the dust removal tower pumps water from the base of the dust removal tower, and the water in the dust removal device is sprayed into a mist through the nozzle. The collision, interception and cohesion between the dust particles fall down with the droplets. This kind of dust collector has simple structure, low resistance and convenient operation. The spray head in the tower sprays water evenlyseparatesthe fine particles in the hot air. The dust and impurities precipitate in the dust removal base, the clean water is separated by the dust removal pool, and the separated water is recycled for the water mist dust removal.
The chimney is a structure that provides ventilation for hot smoke or smoke from a boiler, stove furnace or fireplace. The chimney is usually vertical, or as close as possible to the vertical, to ensure a smooth flow of gas into the air.
Cyclone Dust Remover
Cyclone dust remover is a type of dust removal device. The mechanism of dust removal is to make the dust-laden airflow rotate, with the aid of centrifugal force to separate the dust particles from the airflow and trap them on the wall, and then use gravity to make the dust particles fall into the ash hopper, which is used to purify and collect the larger parts of the flue gas. For particulate matter and dust, the dust removal efficiency fluctuates between 70-85%.
PART6. Feeding System
Large Inclination Belt Conveyor
The large inclination belt conveyor conveys materials for the dryer and the main carbonization furnace. The speed of the conveyed materials can be adjusted in real time by controlling the motor speed. The structure is simple, the maintenance is convenient, the space is small, the investment is saved, and the conveying capacity is large. The belt is a corrugated rib belt.
Undertake the last large inclination belt conveyor. The main function of the wind shelter is to seal during continuous quantitative unloading. The sealing principle is to store a certain amount of material between the internal rotating blades to form a material seal, plus its own It is sealed to prevent external oxygen gas from entering the main carbonization furnace through a closed air device, a chute or a shaftless spiral, which avoids the aerobic reaction and explosion of the materials inside the main furnace, and ensures the safety of the main furnace.
Shaftless Screw Conveyor
Undertake the last closed wind shelter. The shaftless screw conveyor from Beston China can transport materials that traditional shaft screw conveyors and belt conveyors cannot or are difficult to convey, such as granular and powdery materials, wet and pasty materials, semi-fluid and viscous materials. Materials that are easy to wind and block, and materials that have special hygiene requirements. The performance characteristics of the shaftless screw conveyor are: Compared with the traditional shafted screw conveyor, the shaftless screw conveyor has the above outstanding advantages due to the design of no central shaft and the use of a flexible integral steel screw to push materials; Good environmental performance; Compared with the shaft screw conveyor, the weight and cost will be reduced a lot.
- Good environmental performance. The fully enclosed and easy-to-clean spiral surface can ensure that the conveyed materials are not polluted and will not leak the conveyed materials.
- The conveying capacity is large, and the conveying capacity is 1.5 times that of the screw conveyor with the same diameter.
- The torque is large, the energy consumption is low, and the discharge port is not blocked.
- Long conveying distance.
Undertake the last closed wind shelter. The chute is directly connected with the inlet and outlet heads. The structure is simple, the cost is low, and the material falls into the inner cylinder of the main furnace by the gravity of the material. The chute feeding method is suitable for the material in the form of small blocks and granules. The humidity is relatively small, so it is not easy to wind, and the accumulation angle is relatively small.
PART7. Other Parts
The cooling tower is a device that uses the contact of water and air to dissipate waste heat generated in industry or in refrigeration and air conditioning through evaporation. The process of cooling water in a cooling tower is a process of heat and mass transfer. The cooled water is distributed to the filler inside the cooling tower with nozzles, water distributors or water distribution trays, which greatly increases the contact area between water and air. The air is brought into the cooling tower by the fan. Part of the water absorbs heat and vaporizes under isobaric conditions, so that the temperature of the surrounding liquid water drops.
The basic principle is: after the dry air is drawn by the fan, it enters the cooling tower from the air inlet network; the high temperature water molecules with high saturated steam partial pressure flow to the low pressure air, and the hot and humid water self-seeding system is sprinkled into the tower. When water droplets contact air, on the one hand, due to the direct heat transfer between air and water, on the other hand, due to the pressure difference between the surface of water vapor and air, evaporation occurs under the action of pressure, that is, through contact with unsaturated dry air The heat transfer takes away the sensible heat of the water, and part of the water evaporates to remove the submerged heat in the water, so as to achieve the purpose of cooling the cooling water.
Electric Control System
Electric control cabinet is the control center of the entire carbonization system. It controls the switching and operation of each motor in the system, and displays the temperature and pressure of key parts at the same time, providing data for production operations.
The internal control circuit of the electric control cabinet has been connected before the equipment leaves the factory. You only need to connect the power circuit and the transmission signal circuit according to the marks on the terminal.
Induced Draft Fan
The principle of the induced draft fan is the fan impeller inside the fan rotates at a high speed when the fan is working, so that the air in the fan shell generates centrifugal force and is thrown away from the fan impeller, and is “pressure sent” out of the fan through the air outlet; The air is thrown out to produce “negative pressure”, so “new air” is constantly replenished from the air inlet, which constitutes the normal working state of the fan.
When the induced draft fan is working, it discharges the hot air flue gas generated in the furnace and maintains a certain negative pressure in the furnace, which is also called a suction fan. The air inlet of the induced draft fan has its own air valve. The function is to adjust the effective flow area of the air inlet by adjusting the different gears of this valve, thereby adjusting the flow of hot air. Generally adjust to the middle gear. The principle is that the faster the hot air flow rate, the less heat the hot air transfers to the main furnace.