This article conducts a comprehensive analysis and elaboration on the potential of pyrolysis processes in the waste management sector. We will take oil sludge pyrolysis treatment method as an example, to analyze the characteristics of solid waste and the pyrolysis of municipal solid waste.
Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste
In recent years, the output of solid waste has grown rapidly, and the economic value of the utilization of the components in the solid waste is low. Taking Chinese cities as an example, according to statistics from relevant departments, the content of organic components in China’s municipal solid waste is very small. Only about a quarter of the content of inorganic components, of which the proportion of non-combustible components is very large, close to 95%, and cannot be composted. The composition of the solid waste is also far smaller than the compostable composition, which leads to a small amount of usable part of the solid waste in China, which has brought great obstacles to the economic utilization of solid waste.
As the seasons in China change, the types and characteristics of solid waste are also changing, and the means of production and living will also change with the changes of the seasons, forming certain fluctuation characteristics, as well as resulting in corresponding changes in the types and characteristics of solid waste.
Disadvantages of Solid Waste – Pollution and Harm to the Environment
1. Waste valuable land resources.
With the development of urban construction, land resources are becoming more and more precious, but a large amount of solid waste is generated, which will cause serious waste of land resources.
2. Cause water pollution.
If solid waste is dumped in rivers, lakes or seaswithout any treatment, itwill cause serious pollution to water resources. At the same time, viruses in solid waste can also cause water-borne diseases.
3. Pollute the atmosphere.
Many cities in our country stack solid waste directly in the open environment, which will cause the harmful substances in the waste to be scattered in the air at will, and alsocause serious pollution to the air.
4. Pollutesoil and crops.
Solid waste will cause some harmful substances such as parasite eggs and heavy metals to be produced in the soil, leading to a decline in the quality of the soil, and thus causing pollution to the crops that grow in the soil.
Current Status and Development of Pyrolysis Process in Solid Waste Management
The pyrolysis mechanism of coal has been developed relatively mature in the 1920s, and certain results have been obtained in related industrial implementation. According to the pyrolysis mechanism of coal, the solid waste treatment and pyrolysis technology are combined, and the development time is not long. At that time, some European countries mainly used the incineration method to treat garbage. Some research experts in the United States found that the pyrolysis method is safer than the incineration method, has less pollution to the environment, and can also recycle the effective energy in the waste. This new pyrolysis method quickly began in the United States at that time. Some well-known solid waste treatment companies in the United States have developed pyrolysis systems with the characteristics of these enterprises through in-depth research and practice, and have been put into production and use in the United States.
In addition to the United States, some developed countries in Europe and China, Japan in Asia have realized that incineration of solid waste has many disadvantages, which prompted them to start research on pyrolysis technology. The converter pyrolysis technology was also put into market use soon.
Pyrolysis Mechanism and Process
The pyrolysis of municipal solid waste refers to making waste tires, plastics, rubber or oil sludge cracked in a closes furnace (named “pyrolysis reactor”), to produce liquid oil, non-condensable combustible gas and solid products at a certain temperature and pressure. Generally speaking, the pyrolysis process can convert waste tyres, plastics, rubber or oil sludge into fuel oil by high temperature and a certain pressure. The whole pyrolysis process is a chemical reaction, which is continuous and simultaneous. In the course of the reaction, isomerization will occur, forming some complex reactions of broken bonds of organic compounds.
Social and Environmental Benefits of Pyrolysis Technology
Garbage contains many harmful substances that seriously pollute the environment and pose a serious threat to people’s health. In recent years, people have gradually begun to pay attention to the green treatment of solid waste, but there are still some unreasonable landfill composting treatment methods. If pyrolysis technology is used, solid waste can be transformed, forming oil collection, slag sale and other industrial available resources. In this way, it can save valuable land resources, protect the ecological environment, and have very objective social and environmental benefits. Get more about the pyrolysis methods and machines from Beston Group.