Pyrolysis plant, is a device that puts waste tires or waste plastics in a closed container, heats and cracks them at a certain temperature and pressure to produce liquid oil, non-condensable combustible gas and solid products. Every part of the plant plays an important role in the whole production process. Here, we will introduce the components of the latest pyrolysis plant for sale designed by Beston Group in details for your reference.
The components of the latest pyrolysis plant designed by Beston Group includes the following 8 parts: pretreatment system, feeding system, reactor system, condensing system, tail gas treatment system, slag discharge system, electronic control system and other accessories. All the systems support each other and interact with each other to complete the pyrolysis process with high efficiency. Customers can also increase or decrease configuration according to their budget and specific plan.
PART1. Preatment System
The function of the pretreatment system is mainly to process waste tires, rubber, plastics, etc. to the form particles with a diameter of 20-50mm through a series of equipment, thereby increasing the filling volume of the reactor and reducing the reaction time. The system generally includes tire cutting machine, tire wire drawing machine, dicing machine, fine crusher, plastic crusher and other equipment. It can be selected according to different needs of customers and different forms of equipment.
Tire Cutting Machine
The function of the tire cutting machine: the tire cutting machine (also called tyre shredder) is a device that separates the tire tread and the bead at room temperature. Its purpose is to cut off the bead steel ring to facilitate the subsequent processes of the production line.
Working principle: The pneumatic cylinder supports and uses the expansion claw to fix the tire. The motor drives the tire to run through the coupling. The operation controls the expansion and contraction of the cutter to cut off the bead on either side of the tire.
Tire Wire Drawing Machine
The tire wire drawing machine is a device that pulls out the steel wire in the bead of the waste tires at room temperature. Its main purpose is to prolong the service life of the subsequent crusher equipment cutters and facilitate crushing and cutting. It mainly includes: electric motor, draw hook, cylinder hydraulic station, control handle, frame, guide wheel and other components.
The shearing dicing machine reduces the size of the material through shearing. This shredder is widely used in waste plastics, waste rubber and other large-volume wastes. Its main purpose is to prepare for the subsequent crushing process. The tire diameter is less than 1.2 meters without going through this process. It mainly includes: hydraulic station, oil cylinder, electric control cabinet, etc.
The material is reprocessed mainly by cutting, tearing and squeezing to achieve the purpose of reducing the size of the material. The processed raw materials are processed again to reach the required raw material size of about 50mm for pyrolysis reactor.
PART2. Feeding System
The feeding system uses mechanical equipment or manpower to complete the process of adding raw materials to the reactor. There are mainly three ways: screw feeder, hydraulic feeder and manual feed, as well as matching belt conveyor.
This feeding method takes a long time to feed, but there are more materials stacked, which is suitable for countries and regions with lower labor costs. At the same time, manual feeding can be used with belt conveyors or forklifts.
Screw feeder, also called screw conveyor, is a kind of machinery that uses a motor to drive a screw to rotate and push materials to achieve the purpose of conveying. It mainly includes driving device, screw shaft, screw blade, screw shell, etc. The choice of screw feeder requires the pretreatment of the raw materials. As the raw materials have undergone pretreatment, it will save cracking time, as well as labor hours and manpower. It is suitable for countries where labor costs are more expensive. And the structure is relatively simple and compact, the work is reliable and the transportation is convenient. It is mainly used in continuous pyrolysis equipment.
The hydraulic station, oil cylinder, electric control cabinet and other parts are all fixed on the frame, and the entire tire raw material can be directly fed (the tire diameter needs to be less than or equal to 1200mm), without pretreatment to save costs.
Belt conveyor, is a friction-driven machine that transports materials in a continuous manner. It is mainly composed of frame, conveyor belt, roller, roller, tensioning device, transmission device, etc. The belt conveyor has the features of strong conveying capacity, long conveying distance, simple structure, easy maintenance, and easy disassembly. The purpose of adding this equipment is not only to transport the pretreated material to the feeding position, but also to transport the whole tire into the reactor during manual feeding.
PART3. Reactor System
As the core equipment in the whole pyrolysis system for waste, the reactor system has four parts.
The driving device is composed of a driving motor, a reducer, and a spring base to provide power for the rotation of the reactor. The forward and reverse rotation can be controlled by the electric control cabinet. The cylindrical gear reducer is driven by a motor to make the main furnace run smoothly. It has a spring compensation system to ensure perfect gear meshing.
The fuel burns in the base to provide heat for the pyrolysis reactor, prevent part of the heat loss, and play the role of supporting and fixing the main furnace. Beston Group will provide different heating schemes according to the customer’s on-site situation. Commonly used fuels include coal, wood, fuel oil, natural gas, and non-condensable combustible gas recovered during production.
The reaction kettle rotates under the operation of the driving device, and the raw materials absorb heat in the reaction kettle. After reaching the cracking temperature, the cracking starts to produce oil and gas. The reactor is the core part of the entire tire pyrolysis equipment. Its quality and reasonable design directly affect the normal operation of the entire pyrolysis unit, as well as the safety of personnel and equipment in the production process.
The main function of the casing is to keep warm, reduce the heat loss and fuel consumption of the pyrolysis oil reactor in the heating process, and to ensure that the pyrolysis reaction continues.
PART4. Condensing System
The oil gas processing system (condensing system) is used to separate and collect the pyrolysis oil gas in the reactor, including manifold, residual oil tank, oil gas condenser, oil and gas separation tank, cooling water heat dissipation system.
The first function of the manifold is to buffer the oil gas from the pyrolysis reactor when it enters the oil passage condenser, so that the oil gas enter the oil passage condenser evenly. Secondly, it plays the role of gas-liquid separation, to separate gas and heavy oil.
During the production, the gas produced in the reactor and the liquid oil formed when it is cold are separated in the manifold. The gas rises into the oil-gas condenser, while the liquid oil drops. When the gas generated from the reactor enters the manifold, the temperature of the manifold is low, and a part of the gas with a low freezing point will be condensed into liquid and separated in the manifold. The gas rises and enters the oil gas condensing system, and the liquid falls into the residue tank. This liquid includes oil and water.
In the process of cooling the oil vapor into liquid oil, some impurities will be absorbed into the liquid oil, and the residue will be discharged through the ball valve below.
Oil Gas Condenser
- NO.1 Vertical Condenser
The oil gas condenser plays a role in cooling oil gas. It is an important part of the pyrolysis oil equipment and directly related to the oil output rate of the equipment. Beston oil gas condenser adopts a conventional tube-and-tube condenser. The condenser has the characteristics of simple structure, convenient maintenance, and large cooling area. It is widely used in the petrochemical industry. It uses water as a cooling medium to transfer heat.
The oil vapor enters the oil passage condenser from the air bag, where it is cooled to form liquid oil and non-condensable combustible gas, and enters the oil tank. During the flow of oil gas, the cooling water flows into the condenser from the water inlet at the bottom under the action of the cooling water circulating pump. The heat dissipation tower discharges the heat in the cooling circulating water so that the temperature of the cooling circulating water is within a certain range to ensure the normal operation of the condensing system. The circulating cooling water is always clean.
- NO2. Integrated Condenser (3 in 1)
Three-in-one integrated condenser is a device designed to integrate oil passage condenser, oil storage tank and hydroseal. It is a new type condenser designed by Beston company. The latest condenser has the following advantages: convenient transportation and installation, can effectively shorten the installation period, thick condensing pipe, not easy to block, easy to clean, less floor space, more oil storage, equipped with double water seals, anti-tempering performance is more significant.
The oil tank plays the role of oil storage and gas-liquid separation.
Under the action of gravity, the liquid oil formed by cooling flows to the oil tank for storage. Under the action of the pressure generated by the reactor, the combustible gas that cannot be cooled enters the combustible gas recovery system to complete the gas-liquid separation. The oil tank is equipped with a level gauge to check the amount of oil stored.
The function of the hydroseal is to prevent backfire and purify the combustible gas.
Assuming backfire occurs, after the flame enters the hydroseal tank through the combustible gas pipeline, the flame cannot continue to spread because the combustible gas inlet pipeline is below the water surface, which prevents the occurrence of dangerous accidents.
The hydroseal tank realizes the anti-backfire function through the pressure of water, and the water surface is higher than the combustible gas inlet, generally about 5-7 cm higher than the inlet. At the same time, the water level should not be too high, otherwise it will easily cause internal pressure in the direction of the combustible gas inlet pipe.
During the production process, if other reasons cause the incomplete cooling of the oil gas cooling system, a small amount of liquid oil will be stored in the water-sealed tank, and the oil needs to be drained before re-production.
PART5. Tail Gas Treatment System
The tail gas treatment system collects and purify the flue gas in the reactor, to meet the purpose of standard emission. The main equipment includes flue condenser, atomization water tank, atomization tower, chimney, induced draft fan (centrifugal fan), etc.
The flue condenser is a kind of double-pipe heat exchanger. The circulating cooling water is provided by the supporting water pump, and the circulating cooling water comes from the cooling pool. After the high-temperature hot air passes through the flue condenser, the heat is exchanged to the cooling water. The temperature of the hot air is reduced, which protects the bearings of the induced draft fan, thereby extending the efficiency of the induced draft fan. Service life.
Induced Draft Fan
Its principle is due to the high-speed rotation of the fan impeller inside the fan when the fan is working, so that the air in the fan shell generates centrifugal force and is thrown away from the fan impeller, and is “pressure sent” out of the fan through the air outlet; The air is thrown out to produce “negative pressure”, so “new air” is continuously replenished from the air inlet, which constitutes the normal working state of the fan.
When the induced draft fan is working, it discharges the hot air flue gas generated in the reactor and maintains a certain negative pressure in the reactor, which is also called a suction fan. The air inlet of the induced draft fan has its own air valve. The function is to adjust the effective flow area of the air inlet by adjusting the different gears of this valve, thereby adjusting the flow of hot air. Generally adjust to the middle gear. The principle is that the faster the flow rate of the hot air, the less heat the hot air transfers to the reactor.
The main function of the water tank is to provide water source and water source recovery for the spray system of the upper atomization tower. The water tank itself has a dirt separation design to provide a cleaner water source for the upper wind.
Spray De-dusting Tower
The atomization tower can also be called a dust removal tower, which provides two dust removal methods, one is the adsorption of Bohr magnetic ring packing, and the other is water spraying.
- Magnetic ring packing dust removal: The packing adopts ceramic Bohr magnetic ring, which has the advantages of large flux, low resistance, high separation efficiency, and large operating flexibility. In general, it is 50%-100%larger than ordinary Raschig rings.When the hot air passes, the filler magnetic ring has a damping effect on the hot air and separates the larger particles of dust. The spray water wets the surface of the magnetic ring. When the hot air passes, the wet magnetic ring surface absorbs the smaller particles of dust and sprays at the same time. The shower pump sprays water evenly to wash the magnetic ring.
- Spray water dust removal: The spray water pump supporting the dust removal tower pumps water from the base of the dust removal tower, and the water in the dust removal device is sprayed into a mist through the nozzle. The spray dust collector collides, intercepts and condenses, and the dust particles fall down with the droplets. This kind of dust collector has simple structure, low resistance and convenient operation. The spray head in the tower sprays water evenly to separate the fine particles in the hot air. In the dust removal base, the dust and impurities are deposited, and the clear water is separated by the partition, and the separated water is recycled for the water mist dust removal.
A chimney is a structure that provides ventilation for hot smoke or smoke from a boiler, stove, stove or fireplace. The chimney is usually vertical, or as close as possible to the vertical, to ensure a smooth flow of gas into the air.
PART6. Slag Discharge System
The slag discharging system uses the screw inside the slag discharging device to discharge the carbon black from the reactor to the outside of the system, and it is stored in a container provided by the customer. It realizes a closed carbon black discharging, simple operation, fully automatic carbon black discharging process, clean, pollution-free, time-saving and labor-saving. The system includes screw discharge device, high temperature ball valve and water-cooled discharge device (generally equipped with 2 sets of water-cooled slag discharge).
The principle of screw discharging is basically the same as that of screw conveyor. It is also a machine that uses a motor to drive a screw to rotate and push materials to achieve the purpose of conveying. It mainly includes driving device, screw shaft, screw blade, screw shell, etc. The structure is relatively simple and compact, the work is reliable, and the transportation is convenient. With the cooperation of the reactor, the carbon black is discharged.
High-temperature Ball Valve
The high-temperature ball valve is closed during production, preventing oil and gas from escaping through the slag tap. Open the value when the slag is discharged, and the carbon black is discharged from here.
Water Cooling Discharging Machine
It is optional to work with the screw discharging extractor. Equipped with a water cooling system, the carbon black can be produced at high temperature. This water cooling system, including circulating water pumps and circulating water pipes, can share the same water-cooling system with the oil gas condenser, adding the corresponding valves, pumps and pipes.
PART7. Electronic Control System
Power control cabinet is the control center of the entire pyrolysis system. It controls the switching and operation of each motor in the system, and displays the temperature and pressure of key parts at the same time, to provide data for production operations.
The internal control circuit of the electric control cabinet has been connected before the equipment leaves the factory. You only need to connect the power circuit and the transmission signal circuit according to the marks on the terminal.
PART8. Other Accessories
A cooling tower is a device that uses the contact between water and air to dissipate waste heat generated in industry through evaporation. The process of cooling water in a cooling tower is a process of heat and mass transfer. The cooled water is distributed to the filler inside the cooling tower with nozzles, water distributors or water distribution trays, which greatly increases the contact area between water and air. The air is brought into the cooling tower by the fan. Part of the water absorbs heat and vaporizes under isobaric conditions, so that the temperature of the surrounding liquid water drops.
The basic principle is: after the dry air is drawn by the fan, it enters the cooling tower from the air inlet network; the high temperature water molecules with high saturated steam partial pressure flow to the low pressure air, and the hot and humid water self-seeding system is sprinkled into the tower. When water droplets contact air, on the one hand, due to the direct heat transfer between air and water, on the other hand, due to the pressure difference between the surface of water vapor and air, evaporation occurs under the action of pressure, that is, through the contact with unsaturated dry air The heat transfer takes away the sensible heat of the water, and part of the water evaporates to remove the submerged heat in the water, so as to achieve the purpose of cooling the cooling water.
Burner is a general term for devices that make fuel and air spray mixed and combust in a certain way. After the power is turned on, the automatic fuel supply will automatically spray flames and burn in the air to achieve the required flame shape and output power. The main fuel types of the burner:
- Fuel: diesel, heavy oil, etc.;
- Gas: natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, gas (coalbed methane), biogas.
Blower and Exhaust Gas Spray Gun
The blower as well as exhaust gas spray gun can use the combustible gas produced by the reactor as fuel to heat the reactor, and at the same time, we can turn off the burner to reduce customer’s energy consumption and reduce production costs.
The blower delivers air to the combustion chamber, and the air volume is about 8m3 per minute. The exhaust gas spray gun contains fixed black bricks to ignite the combustible gas and heat the reactor.
When the pyrolysis plant is working, part of the generated combustible gas is burned in the base to heat the reactor, and the remaining part can be stored in the airbag or burned directly in the exhaust combustion chamber.https://www.bestongroup.com/continuous-pyrolysis-plant/
Besides heating reactor, the flammable gas produced in the pyrolysis process still has a surplus, and the gas needs to be discharged. If it is discharged directly, it will not only pollute the environment, but also have potential safety hazards. After burning here, the safety hazards are eliminated.
The combustible gas produced during the pyrolysis production process can also be stored in the airbag to provide fuel for subsequent production, which can reduce the cost of outsourcing fuel and avoid environmental pollution. A fan and a small hydroseal are matched with it.